Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione     
Bianco G., Bruno F., Tonazzini A., Salerno E., Savino P., Zitova B., Sroubek F., Console E. A framework for virtual restoration of ancient documents by combination of multispectral and 3D imaging. In: EG-IT 2010 - Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference "Computer graphics meets computer vision" (Genova, 18-19 November 2010). Atti, article n. 001-007. Eurographics Italian Chapter, 2010.
Historical documents often undergo various changes over time, that alter their original state and reduce their legibility. Digital techniques are widely applied for document preservation, archiving, analysis and dissemination over the Internet. The goal of restoration is to improve the document legibility for both human and automatic operators, to extract patterns and enhance colour reproduction. Our paper presents a framework for virtual restoration of ancient documents based on a combination of multispectral acquisition, 3D imaging and digital image analysis. The proposed framework consists of several steps. First, digital representations of the documents are acquired as multispectral images and 3D surface maps, the latter reconstructed by a structured light technique. A multispectral camera and a digital projector are used in triangular configuration for 2D and 3D data acquisition. Then the multispectral images are registered against possible misalignments, and the 3D surface representation is used to correct geometrical distortions. Document flattening is then performed by 3D surface parameterization and texture mapping. Statistical techniques of decorrelation are applied to extract individual context parts of the document patterns (stamp, text, etc.) and to attenuate interferences. The processed data are then binarized by the proper segmentation technique. The entire digital object history - all the acquisition and processing steps, with the corresponding parameters - is stored in metadata files. These data can be exploited in a future evaluation of the restoration process and can be used for either the creation of an expert knowledge database or the extraction of cross-document observations and conclusions
Subject Multispectral imaging
3D imaging
Correction of geometrical distortion
Image enhancement
Document restoration and analysis
Expert knowledge database
I.4.9 Image Processing and Computer Vision. Applications
I.7.5 Document Capture. Document Analysis

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