Istituto di Scienze Marine     
Gacic M., Mosquera I., Kovacevic V., Mazzoldi A., Cardin V., Arena F., Gelsi G. Temporal variations of water flow between the Venetian lagoon and the open sea. In: Journal of Marine Systems, vol. 51 (40269) pp. 33 - 47. Elsevier Science Bv, 2004.
Long-term measurements of the water flow at three Venice Lagoon inlets with the bottom-mounted ADCPs show that the main part of the variance (>90%) is associated with the tidal variability. Semi-diumal constituents (mainly M2 and S2) are responsible for about 80% of the flow variance. Phase-lag between the axial current and sea-level is on the order of 2 h for M2 and 4 h for the K1, the maximum inflow leading the sea-level maximum. Phase-difference of tidal flows between inlets shows that Chioggia leads both Malamocco and Lido, suggesting that tidal signal progresses northward, thus in the opposite direction of both the semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal signals in the open Adriatic currents. The sea-level slope between the open sea and the lagoon interior controls the inlet flow, which is due to the time lag being constant for all tidal constituents. It was shown that tidal oscillations at Punta Salute (lagoon interior) lag those in Lido by about 45 min. The pressure gradient due to the sea-level slope generates the flow acceleration. Only for large current speeds (>0.5 m/s), the bottom friction terrn becomes equally important as the local acceleration and the horizontal pressure gradient tenns. Wind effects manifest as a remote forcing through Adriatic seiches at semi-diumal and diumal scales, and as a local forcing at very long time scales on the order of a month. This latter mechanism is limited to a winter period (November-January). Sciches are present over the entire year, being however, more energetic and frequent during autumn and winter. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marsys.2004.05.025
Subject estuary-ocean exchange
inlet dynamics
non-tidal variability
Venetian lagoon

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