Istituto di Scienze Marine     
Blihoghe D. B., Manzo E., Villela A., Cutignano A., Picariello G., Faimali M., Fontana A. Evaluation of the antifouling properties of 3-alyklpyridine compounds. In: Biofouling, vol. 27 (1) pp. 99 - 109. Taylor & Francis, 2011.
One of the most promising alternative technologies to antifouling (AF) biocides based on toxic heavy metals lies in the development of natural eco-friendly biocides. The present study evaluates the AF potential of structurally different compounds containing a 3-alkylpyridine moiety. The products, namely poly 3-alkylpyridinium salts,saraine, and haminols, were either extracted or derived from natural sources (the sponges Haliclona sp. and Reniera sarai and the mollusc Haminoea fusari), or obtained by chemical synthesis. All the molecules tested showed generally good anti-settlement activity against larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus (╝Balanus) amphitrite (EC50 values between 0.19 and 3.61 mg ml71) and low toxicity (LC50 values ranging from 2.04 to over 100 mg ml71) with nontarget organisms. For the first time, the AF potential of a synthetic monomeric 3-alkylpyridine was demonstrated,suggesting that chemical synthesis is as a realistic way to produce large amounts of these compounds for future research and development of environmentally-friendly AF biocides.
DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2010.542587
Subject poly-alkylpyridins
haminols; saraine-1
anti-settlement activity
Amphibalanus (Balanus) amphitrite
Tigriopus fulvus

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