Istituto di Scienze Marine     
Faimali M., Sepcic K., Turk T., Geraci S. Non-toxic Antifouling Activity of Polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium Salts from the Mediterranean Sponge Reniera sarai (Pulitzer-Finali). In: Biofouling, vol. 19 (1) pp. 47 - 56. Taylor & Francis, 2003.
The antifouling activity and toxicity of polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai were studied. The activity of these natural products was compared to that of zinc and copper complexes of pyrithione, two non-persistent booster biocides successfully used in current antifouling coatings. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (cyprids and nauplii) were used to monitor settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were used in toxicity bioassays. Compared to the booster biocides, poly-APS were less effective at inhibiting cyprid settlement, but their effects were non toxic and reversible, with very low toxicity against the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays. Although encouraging, these results are not enough to warrant the use of poly-APS as a potential commercial antifoulant. They however justify possible future efforts to chemically synthesize poly-APS analogues for further tests.
DOI: 10.1080/0892701021000036966
Subject natural products
alkylpydidinium polymers
antifouling products
zinc/copper pyrithione
Reniera sarai

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