Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi     
Cappelli E., Scilletta C., Mattei G., Valentini V., Orlando S., Servidori M. Critical role of laser wavelength on carbon films grown by PLD of graphite. In: Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, vol. 93 pp. 751 - 758. Springer, 2008.
The structure of thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation (PLD) is strongly dependent on experimental conditions, like laser wavelength and fluence, substrate temperature and pressure. Depending on these parameters we obtained various kinds of carbon materials varying from dense, mainly tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), to less compact vertically oriented graphene nano-particles. Thin carbon films were grown by PLD on n-Si < 100 > substrates, at temperatures ranging from RT to 800 degrees C, from a rotating graphite target operating in vacuum. The laser ablation of the graphite target was performed by a UV pulsed ArF excimer laser (lambda=193 nm) and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, operating in the near IR (lambda=1064 nm). The film structure and texturing, characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis, performed at grazing incidence (GI-XRD), and the film density, evaluated by X-ray reflectivity measurements, are strongly affected both by laser wavelength and fluence and by substrate temperature. Micro-Raman and GI-XRD analysis established the progressive formation of aromatic clusters and cluster condensation into vertically oriented nano-sized graphene structures as a direct function of increasing laser wavelength and deposition temperature. The film density, negatively affected by substrate temperature and laser wavelength and fluence, in turn, results in a porous bulk configuration and a high macroscopic surface roughness as shown by SEM characterisation. These structural property modifications induce a relevant variation also on the emission properties of carbon nano-structures, as evidenced by field emission measurements.
DOI: 10.1007/s00339-008-4708-7
Subject Field-emission properties

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