Istituto dei materiali per l'elettronica ed il magnetismo     
Ferrari C., Attolini G., Bosi M., Gombia E., Armani N., Rossi F., Capellini G., Colace L. Epitaxial germanium for photovoltaic or opto-electronic applications. Chennai: Madras University, 2010.
Germanium is gaining an increasing renewed industrial and scientific interest for many applications. The integration of germanium with the well established silicon platform opens the way to integrated optoelectronic devices. In this paper we report on research activities which involve epitaxial germanium: - As the electronic device miniaturization foresees the transition to higher mobility materials, the microelectronic industry is now interested in Ge-rich SiGe alloys. To overcome the problem of the high density of structural defects due to the high lattice mismatch (4%) between silicon and germanium, Si1-xGex virtual substrates are proposed where Ge layer content is modulated to obtain a low dislocation Ge rich active layer. - Thermophotovoltaic cogenerators of electricity and heat are interesting for a more efficient use of fuel energy. A low bandgap photovoltaic cell based on germanium is suitable for thermophotovoltaic converters and for multiple junction photovoltaic cells. - Thermally evaporated crystalline germanium deposited at low temperatures (around 300C) can be used to produce Ge optoelectronics integrated circuits on Si, such as arrays of near-infrared sensitive pixels with on-board electronics, as well as waveguide photodiodes.
Subject germanium photovoltaic cells
Optoelectronic application

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