PUMA
Istituto dei materiali per l'elettronica ed il magnetismo     
Gilioli E., Calestani G., Licci F., Paorici C., Gauzzi A., Bolzoni F., Prodi A. High-pressure growth of NaMn7O12 crystals. In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 179 (12) pp. 3839 - 3848. Elsevier Inc, 2006.
 
 
Abstract
(English)
With the aim of producing large crystals of metastable NaMn7O12 manganite, suitable for physical measurements (i.e.: RXS, Raman, EPR, STS, single-crystal neutron diffraction), we carried out a systematic investigation of the parameters controlling the growth of crystals, including the thermodynamic variables (T, P, and reagent composition) and the kinetic factors, Such as reaction time and heating/cooling rate. By varying each parameter while maintaining constant the other ones, we found the thermodynamic conditions under which an optimum equilibrium is reached between the competing nucleation and growth rates. They were found to range between 400 and 700 degrees C (T) and between 20 and 60 Kbars (P), respectively. Under these conditions, we further optimized the growth process, by establishing the most appropriate growth duration (several hours), reagent type (pre-reacted precursor) and composition (presence of 0.4 mole% water and of 5% Na excess with respect to the stoichiometric composition). Typical crystals having several hundreds pm in linear sizes were reproducibly obtained, while the largest sample was about 800 mu m. A description of the crystal growth mechanism, based on the experimental results, is also presented and discussed. It assumes that two different mechanisms control the crystal growth, depending on whether the crystallization is taking place outside the stability field, i.e. in presence of native reagents, or inside it, i.e. in a polycrystalline NaMn7O12 phase matrix. In the first case, large crystal growth occurs thanks to the low nucleation and high diffusion rates, while in the second one the crystallization is due to the solid-state mechanism based on the free energy reduction caused by grain boundary migration.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2006.07.036
Subject single crystal
high pressure
manganite
NaMn7O12


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