PUMA
Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse     
Altenberger U., Prosser G., Grande A., GŁnter C., Langone A. A seismogenic zone in the deep crust indicated by pseudotachylytes and ultramylonites in granulite-facies rocks of Calabria (Southern Italy). In: Contributions To Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 166 (4) pp. 975 - 994. Springer, 2013.
 
 
Abstract
(English)
Pseudotachylyte veins frequently associated with mylonites and ultramylonites occur within migmatitic paragneisses, metamonzodiorites, as well as felsic and mafic granulites at the base of the section of the Hercynian lower crust exposed in Calabria (Southern Italy). The crustal section is tectonically superposed on lower grade units. Ultramylonites and pseudotachylytes are particularly well developed in migmatitic paragneisses, whereas sparse fault-related pseudotachylytes and thin mylonite/ultramylonite bands occur in granulite-facies rocks. The presence of sillimanite and clinopyroxene in ultramylonites and mylonites indicates that relatively high-temperature conditions preceded the formation of pseudotachylytes. We have analysed pseudotachylytes from different rock types to ascertain their deep crustal origin and to better understand the relationships between brittle and ductile processes during deformation of the deeper crust. Different protoliths were selected to test how lithology controls pseudotachylyte composition and textures. In migmatites and felsic granulites, euhedral or cauliflower-shaped garnets directly crystallized from pseudotachylyte melts of near andesitic composition. This indicates that pseudotachylytes originated at deep crustal conditions (>0.75 GPa). In mafic protoliths, quenched needle-to-feather-shaped high-alumina orthopyroxene occurs in contact with newly crystallized plagioclase. The pyroxene crystallizes in garnet-free and garnet-bearing veins. The simultaneous growth of orthopyroxene and plagioclase as well as almandine, suggests lower crustal origin, with pressures in excess of 0.85 GPa. The existence of melts of different composition in the same vein indicates the stepwise, non-equilibrium conditions of frictional melting. Melt formed and intruded into pre-existing anisotropies. In mafic granulites, brittle faulting is localized in a previously formed thin high-temperature mylonite bands. migmatitic gneisses are deformed into ultramylonite domains characterized by s-c fabric. Small grain size and fluids lowered the effective stress on the c planes favouring a seismic event and the consequent melt generation. Microstructures and ductile deformation of pseudotachylytes suggest continuous ductile flow punctuated by episodes of high-strain rate, leading to seismic events and melting.
URL: http://link.springer.com/journal/410
Subject pseudotachylyte
Calabria
lower crust
paleo-seismicity


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