Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse     
Panichi C., La Ruffa G. Stable isotope geochemistry of fumaroles: an insight into volcanic surveillance. In: Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 32 (4-5) pp. 519 - 542. Elsevier, 2001.
In active volcanic environments magmatic water may accumulate in the volcanic-hosted geothermal systems, or, more rarely may reach the surface along deep fractures inside the volcano crater. Knowledge of magmatic contribution to emerging fluids in volcanic active areas is critical to understanding the chemical evolution of the magma, the conditions in which it exists in the crust, and the mechanisms by which it erupts in the crust. The source of volatiles (especially water) is also of interest when eruptions are driven by the expansion of hydrothermal fluids against atmospheric pressure, without the involvement of fresh magma (‘hydrothermal’ or ‘phreatomagmatic’ eruptions). In both cases the occurrence of volcanic and/or phreatic activities is likely to be preceded by substantial isotopic and chemical changes in the crater fumarolic systems. H and O isotopic composition of condensed water from crater fumaroles appear to be able to give strong evidence for the existence of magmatic waters in the high-temperature manifestations of the volcanic systems. Isotopic data and specific hydrological models from seven different volcanic systems (Galeras Volcano, Colombia, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Kudryvy Volcano, Kuril volcanic arc, Mt St Helens, USA; Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador; Vulcano island, Italy; the Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece) are discussed in order to highlight the possibility to use those isotopic parameters in the assessment of the environmental risks of an active volcanic area.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02643707
DOI: 10.1016/S0264-3707(01)00046-1
Subject volcanic surveillance
stable isotopes
case histories

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