Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse     
Grassi S., Gianelli G., Toro B. Studies of low-temperature hydrothermal systems: San Giuliano prospect (Pisa, Italy). In: Energy Sources, vol. 16 pp. 401 - 423. Taylor and Francis, 1994.
The San Giuliano low-tempertaure hydrothermal system is located at the foot of the Pisan Mounts in Tuscany, the most important geothermal region in Italy. Eleven water points with temperatures within the range 16-40C and salinity between 0.6 and 2.4 g/ l are distributed along the superficial contact between Mesozoic carbonate aquifer formations outcropping on the relief and the low- permeability deposits of the Pisan Plain. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations, as well as periodic geochemical and isotopic samplings and temperatures measurements of differents water-points, were carried out during the period 1988-91. These observations indicate the thermal, low-tritium, calcium-sulfate waters rise toward the surface from a reservoir made up of a Triassic evaporitic sequence through a buried fault located in the vicinity of the margins of the Pisan Mountains. The presence of a low-permeable cover, represented by Quaternary and Neogenic deposits, allows only the local upflow of thermal water and a poor flow rate at the warmest springs. These springs, located in the central part of prospect, are used in the Spa facilities. Most of the thermal waters, blocked by the impervious cover, moves laterally within the system and mixes with young, cold, meteoric water. Most of the water points represent mixtures in different proportions of the Spa water and this meteoric component. The local carbonate outcrops probably represent the main recharge areas for the system. However, assuming that regional circulation could be present, a large amount af water, at temperatures between 70 and 80C, as suggest by geothermometric indications, could be found at depth
URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/15567036.asp
Subject thermal springs
isotopic composition
geochemical thermometers

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