Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse     
Panichi C., Bolognesi L., Ghiara M., Noto P., Stanzione D. Geothermal assessment of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) from isotopic and chemical composition of the delivered fluids. In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 49 (3-4) pp. 329 - 348. Elsevier, 1992.
The Ischia geothermal system is hosted by silicic rocks of the Quaternary Potassic Roman Province, in southern Italy. Exploration drilling down to 1156 m depth in the mid-1950s provided information on boiling profiles (up to 250C) and on the depth and permeability of the potential reservoirs. Discharge fluid samples were collected and analyzed to define the inflow of surrounding seawater (C1 ranges from 2.5 to 20 g/kg) into the system. Analyses of samples from surface manifestations and shallow wells collected during 1983 and 1988 point to the existence of three distinct mixing regimes, involving three water components. A dishomogeneous body of diluted water (Cl less than 2.5 g/kg), that occurs at depths > 700 m and reequilibrates at 240C at least, is overlain by an aquifer of groundwater variably mixed with variably seawater (Cl from 4 to 10 g/kg), which tends to reequilibrate at 160C. Steam-heated waters locally develop and act as dilutants of the rising geothermal fluids. Dilution, mixing, and evaporation of the ascending chloride fluids are supported by oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data the thermal waters being enriched in 18O and D with respect to local meteoric water by up to 7 and 30, respectively. The relative composition of the major cations in thermal solutions was used to discriminate the two main groups of thermal waters, the reservoir temperatures of which are estimated from the Na/K-gethermometer. K-Mg geothermometer indicates reequilibration in near-surface conditions. The isotopic composition of the fumarolic steam varies from −7 to −12 in ∂8O and from − 35 to − 70 in ∂D, in agreement with a deep mixed fluid that boils adiabatically from 240 to 80C. The deuterium content of the H2O-H2 pair gives enrichment factor of about 830, corresponding to equilibrium temperature conditions slightly higher than the surface boiling temperatures. The ∂13C of CO2is almost constant at −4.5 (1δ=0.4), suggesting an important magmatic contribution, and the ∂18O values of CO2 appears to in equilibrium with accompanying steam at the measured temperatures. The CO2/Ar and H2/Ar chemical ratios have been used to derive aquifer temperatures, the values obtained being consistent with those of solute geothermometers.
URL: http://https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-volcanology-and-geothermal-research/
Subject isotopic composition
geochemical thermometers
geochemical prospecting

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