Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica     
Clementi M., Di Gianantonio E., Cassina M., Leoncini E., Botto L. D., Mastroiacovo P., Castilla E. E., Bakker M. K., Bianca S., Cocchi G., De Vigan C., Merlob P., Pierini A., Scarano G., Sipek A., Yamanaka M. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and birth defects. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95 (11) pp. 337 - 341. The Endocrine Society, 2010.
Context: Clinical hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in pregnancy, with a reported prevalence of 0.1 to 0.4%. The available antithyroid drugs are propylthiouracil and methimazole/carbimazole. Objectives: In this report we examined the association of both drugs with congenital malformations using data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Design: The study used a case-affected control analysis and included 18,131 cases with malformations and reported first-trimester exposure to medication. A total of 127 subjects were born to mothers with known first-trimester antithyroid drug exposure. Results: Among the 52 groups of malformations that were analyzed, situs inversusħdextrocardia,isolated unilateral kidney a/dysgenesis, and cardiac outflow tract defects were associated with prenatal exposure to propylthiouracil based on three, two, and five cases, respectively. Prenatal exposure to methimazole/carbimazole was significantly associated with choanal atresia, omphalocele,and total situs inversus ħ dextrocardia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Further studies are required to exhaustively evaluate the associations between propylthiouracil and birth defects because of the low number, the lack of biological plausibility, and the possibility of underdiagnosis. Association between methimazole/carbimazole exposure and omphalocele and choanal atresia is consistent with previous reports and definitely suggests that these malformations could be part of a specific, even if rare, embryopathy.
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20668039
Subject hyperthyroidism
birth defects
antithyroid drugs

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