Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica     
Andreassi M. G., Gastaldelli A., Clerico A., Salvadori P., Sicari R., Picano E. Imaging and Laboratory Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease. In: Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15 pp. 1131 - 1141. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd, 2009.
Imaging and laboratory biomarkers are an essential support to modern practice of medicine, allowing a better identification, severity titration, staging and follow-up of atherosclerosis and heart failure disease. This review provides an overview of imaging, biochemical and genetic biomarkers used in clinical practice and for research purposes in order to evaluate the 4 different aspect of patient vulnerability to cardiovascular disease: arterial; blood; myocardial; metabolic vulnerability. Yet, no single perfect biomarker exists and there is wide room for optimization and integration between clinical evaluation and biomarker evaluation. In general, a targeted approach tailored on the individual patient should be preferred to a carpet diagnostic bombing, which will lead to an exorbitant multiplier of costs, risks and inappropriate testing.
DOI: 1381-6128/09 $55.00+.00
Subject Cardiovascular disease

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