PUMA
Istituto di Biofisica     
Pirrone N., Costa P., Pacyna J., Ferrara R. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region. In: Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35 (17) pp. 2997 - 3006. Elsevier, 2001.
 
 
Abstract
(English)
This report discusses past, current and projected mercury emissions to the atmosphere from major industrial sources, and presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from selected natural sources. Emissions (1995 estimates) from fossil fuels combustion (29.8tyr-1), cement production (28.8tyr-1) and incineration of solid wastes (27.6tyr-1), all together account for about 82% of the regional anthropogenic total (105.7tyr-1). Other industrial sources in the region are smelters (4.8tyr-1), iron-steel plants (4.8tyr-1) and other minor sources (chlor-alkali plants, crematoria, chemicals production) that have been considered together in the miscellaneous category (9.6tyr-1). Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources increased at a rate of 3%yr-1 from 1983 to 1995 and are projected to increase at a rate of 1.9%yr-1 in the next 25 years, if no improvement in emission control policy occurs. On a country-by-country basis, France is the leading emitter country with 22.6tyr-1 followed by Turkey (16.1tyr-1), Italy (11.4tyr-1), Spain (9.1tyr-1), the former Yugoslavia 7.9(tyr-1), Morocco (6.9tyr-1), Bulgaria (6.8tyr-1), Egypt (6.1tyr-1), Syria (3.6tyr-1), Libya (2.9tyr-1), Tunisia (2.8tyr-1) and Greece (2.7tyr-1), whereas the remaining countries account for less than 7% of the regional total. The annual emission from natural sources is 110tyr-1, although this figure only includes the volatilisation of elemental mercury from surface waters and emissions from volcanoes, whereas the contribution due to the degassing of mercury from top soil and vegetation has not been included in this first assessment. Therefore, natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere.
URL: http://scienceserver.cilea.it/cgi-bin/sciserv.pl?collection=journals&journal=13522310&issue=v35i0017&article=2997_mettafasitmr
Subject Mediterranean sea region
Natural emission
Anthropogenic emission
Trend
Projection
Emission factors
Per-capita emission
Control efficiency


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