Istituto di Biofisica     
Weibring P., Edner H., Svanberg S., Cecchi G., Pantani L., Ferrara R., Caltabiano T. Monitoring of volcanic sulphur dioxide emissions using differential absorption lidar (DIAL), differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC). In: Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics, vol. 67 (4) pp. 419 - 426. Springer, 1998.
The total fluxes of sulphur dioxide from the Ital-ian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano were studied using optical remote sensing techniques in three shipborne field experiments (1992, 1994, and 1997). The main purpose of the experiments was to compare active (laser) techniques with passive monitoring. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL)measurements were implemented by placing the Swedish mo-bile lidar system on board the Italian research vessel Ura-nia, sailing under the volcanic plumes. Simultaneously, thepassive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)technique was used for assessing the total overhead gas bur-den. Finally, correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was alsoimplemented in one of the campaigns. Differences in inte-grated gas column assessment are expected and observed, mostly connected to complex scattering conditions influenc- ing the passive measurements. Since such measurements are much employed in routine volcanic monitoring it is of great interest to model and provide corrections to the raw data obtained. Lidar measurements proved to be quite useful for this purpose. By combining the integrated gas concentration over the plume cross section with wind velocity data, SO2 fluxes ofthe order of 1000, 100, and 10 tonnes/day were measured forMt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano, respectively.
DOI: 10.1007/s003400050525

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